Rudiments of mining
- Objectives: Role of mining for the global economy. Geological characterisation of orebodies in relation to potential mining technology. Scope and various types of mining activity. Typical mining equipment and their application. Mining and natural threats associating the technology. Examples of different mines ideas.
Raw minerals in ecosystem, classification according to industrial demand. Rock and rock-mass properties influencing selection of underground technology. Geological and geometrical parameters of mineral deposits and their role for technology. Geological reserves, classification, cut-off grade. Cutting, excavating, winning and drilling techniques utilized underground. Types and use of underground excavations, roof support, lining and enforcement methods. Models of underground mines, infrastructure. Back filling technologies. Natural threats and prophylactics, environmental impact. Underground space for civil utilization.
An example of development of the regular orebody. Determination of the main technological parameters of the deposit exploitation (eg. Resources, daily output and progress, the number of the indicative roof, surface deformation indexes) and choice of the equipment in longwall panel caving in particular shearer loader, armoured face conveyor and powered roof support.
– The students has basic knowledge in the interpretation of mining and geological conditions on the basis of which can design and appropriate system of exploration.
– The students has basic knowledge in the interpretation of mining and geological conditions on the basis of which can design and appropriate support system.
– The student can describe and interpret mining and geological conditions on the basis of which can design and appropriate system of exploration.
– The student is able to perform the project of deposit exploration.
– The student understands the need for continuous updating and expanding knowledge in the field of underground exploitation.
– The student understands the need for continuous updating and expanding knowledge in the field of underground exploitation in the conditions of natural hazards.
- Objectives: This course provide detail geological characteristic of mineral deposits (metallic, coal, salt), and characteristic of selected, important deposit (Bushveld, Witwatersrand, Kupferschiefer etc.).
During the lecture, most important examples of mineral deposits, of different origin will be presented and discussed. Geology of world class mineral deposits e.g. Bushveld complex, Great dyke, Sudbury, Norylsk, Merensky Reef, Ocorusu, Silliniarvi, Chuquicamta, Myszkow, Copper Belt, Lubin – Kupferschiefer type; Cigar Lake, MontGee (U deposit). Metallogenic provinces and epochs in relation to plate tectonic.
How to construct 2D-3D-4D model of mineral deposits. Selected deposits of building and industrial materials.
Identification of selected ore minerals. Description of selected mineral deposit. Evaluation of economic importance of collected samples. Factors controlling ore mineralization based on world class deposits.
– Student have knowledge on mineralogy, petrography and geochemistry on minerals and rocks connected with mineral deposits.
– Student is able to describe, classify and show genesis of minerals and rocks connected with mineral deposits.
– Student is able to identify basic genetic types of ore deposits and minerals.
– Student is aware of impacts of engineering and geological works on environment.
Selected problems of underground construction
- Objectives: The aim of the module is to familiarize students with underground facilities for mining activities, as well as municipal services and underground transport. The element of learning is gaining knowledge how to design underground structures and how to perform them in various geological and geotechnical conditions.
1. Introduction to the task of underground structures. Properties of the rock massive and its acting to the workings lining (1 hours)
2. Underground galeries lining systematic. Rigid and flexible lining. Examples. (1 hours)
3. Mining shafts systematics. Elements of the shafts. Top shaft, Head shaft, shaft bottom. General condition of the shaft location at the mining area. (1 hours).
4. Geological and hydrogeological condition of shaft sinking. (1 hours)
5. General descriptions of shaft sinking methods. Ordinary shaft sinking methods, special methods in underground shaft sinking. (1 hours).
6. Special methods of shaft sinking. Cementation, rockmass freezing methods. (4 hours)
7. Shaft lining. Temporary and final shaft lining. Methods of calculation and design of shaft lining (1 hours).
8. Mechanical end electrical equipment of the shaft and shaft surrounding infrastructure. (1 hours).
9. Basic technologies of mining gates execution. (1 hours).
10. Basic problems of tunneling. (2 hours)
1. Project of underground workings lining (tunnel or mine headings) (3 hours).
2. Concept project of shaft sinking technology using ordinary method (plan of shaft cross section, shaft lining project ) – 6 hours
3. Project of selected elements of shaft sinking technology using one of special shaft sinking method (5 hours).
– Has detailed knowledge of structure underground mine.
– Student has knowledge of methodology designing and performing all undergrounds excavations (vertical shafts, horizontal and inclined galeries and functional underground chambers), and their basic technical equipment have to be installed in.
– Student is well oriented in the problems of rock mechanics Engineering especial can estimate loading forces acting on the underground constructions and is familiar with the mechanisms of cooperation both rock massive and lining of the underground workings.
– Student is able to design all mining elements in all technical branches like: mining, mechanical, construction, electrical and sanitary.
– Student can prepare action plan and timetable of all operations necessary for constructing underground mine and their surface infrastructure.
– Student is very skill in using computers tools for preparing necessary drawings (AUTOCAD or equivalent) and is skill in numerical modelling of both geomechanical problems and underground and surface mining structures.
– Student has ability in cooperation with designing Offices and local authorities in the range of execution of necessary arrangements.
– Student understand law of the country of mining operations and is familar with the local law valid in the mining sector.
Information technology in mining
Modern information and communication technologies in mining.
Information tools and methods to design.
Distributed systems of data collection and processing.
Wireless communication and data transmission.
Data security and network security methods.
Databases and data warehouses.
Methods of statistical data analysis.
Methods of signal processing.
Modelling, verification and validation of models Integrated.
Management Systems MRP, ERP, CMR.
Statistical analysis of measurement data.
Statistical analysis of the measurement signals from the system.
Design of the air data.
Design of ventilation database.
Design of computer books for early detection of fires.
– The student has the knowledge of how to apply the information tools in the process of design.
– The student has a general knowledge of building computers and systems and computer networks.
– The student knows the software and programming languages.
– The student has general knowledge in the field of visualization and the collection and archiving of data and information.
– The student is able to use modern information technology in Engineering calculations and design.
– The student knows how to self-sufficiently gather sources to use tools in Engineering work.
– The student knows how to lead and execute Engineering work using information tools.
– The student knows how to design basic tasks using the methods and means of information.
– The student can analyze data using statistical inference, collected in laboratory and field studies.
– The student has the ability to teamwork and self-formulate and solve problems using modern technology.
– The student has the knowledge and the skills of continuing education and professional development.
– The student understands the need to increase the knowledge on advanced and specialized courses.
- Objectives: The module is connected with underground cut of useful minerals both hard coal, ore and salt. Module includes a structure of prospecting, access, preparatory and exploitation excavations.
Underground cut of deposit
Laboratory classes in the MineScape program provide state-of-the-art tools for the strategic planning of underground mining operations.
During classes, students know how to maximise the system of exploitation. Laboratory classes embrase: 1 – General informations about functions and modules in the MineScape program. 2 – Design data and import data from other graphics programs. 3 – Create specs, grid, graphic, surface, post, traingulations and blocks files. 4 – Draw points, lines, crosssections, polygons. 4 – Create regular and irregular forms of deposits. 5 – Create cross – sections from surfaces and solids with drawing auxiliary section lines. 6 – Drill holes profiles with elements of schema, setup and definition of display. 7 – Model of coal or ore deposit with taking into account the lithology, e.g. thickness, interlayer oraz a stucture inside MineScape program, e.g. elements and sequences. 8 – Create underground access, preparatory and exploitation excavations for longwall panel as well as room and pillar mining systems.
During classes, students know how to maximise the system of exploitation. Classes include mineable shape optimizer; automatically produces optimizer excavation design to maximize the value of recovered deposit within the given geometry and design constraints. It support a wide variety of underground mining methods and can quickly generate individual excavations designs within a resource model. Mining activities from three – dimensional design elements and sequences.
– Student knows mine design for room and pillar mining systems
– Student knows mineable: shape optimizer, reserves optimizer and mine layout optimizer.
– Student can use the program for purpose to design underground exploitation system in ore mining.
– Student can use the program for purpose to design underground exploitation system in hard coal mine.
– Student can chose the most appropriate panel mining system adapt to it schedule production
– Student can analyze different underground mining systems of exploitation.
Corporate social responsibility
- Objectives of the course: Philosophy of CSR principles of sustainable development and how to conduct this process in a company resume/control using the Global Reporting Initiative.
Conduct the CSR process in company and control their activities in this matter with GRI Standards.
Social responsibility of business, especially for public relations, environment management and human resources management in
strategic and operational management in the company.
Introduction to philosophy, rules and algorithm of CSR and Global Reporting Initiative in a company, especially in mines.
Rules of CSR – Inroduction to philosophy, rules and algorithm of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Global Reporting Initiative in a company, especially in mines.
CSR process in company and control their activities – The course of the CSR process in company in this matter with GRI Standards model.
The course of the CSR reporting process – The course of the CSR reporting process in company in relation to the GRI norm
CSR’s best practices – Presentation of the best CSR practices of mining enterprises from around the world in the direction of indicating the best possible directions of action in this field.
– The result of education within the framework of the course is the student’s understanding of the philosophy of Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR) principles of sustainable development and how to conduct this process in a company resume/control using the Global Reporting Initiative. On this basis the student should independently perform project evaluation mining company selected using a systematic GRI Standards.
– The student knows the philosophy of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), principles of sustainable and the Global Reporting Inititive systems in GRI Standards model.
The student has the ability to conduct the CSR process in company and control their activities in this matter with GRI Standards model.
The student is aware of social responsibility of business, especially for public relations, environment management and human resources management in strategic and operational management in the company.
- Objectives: As part of the course, the student receives knowledge about fires in underground mines.
FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS – Lectures
The fire triangle and the combustion process.
Classification of mine fires.
Causes of ignitions of fires in underground mines.
Open fires and spontaneus combustion.
Stoppings, seals and section pressure balances for emergency situations.
The use of inert gases.
Fire gases and their interpretation.
Explosions caused a fire underground.
Protection of personnel.
FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS – Project classes
The preparation of a potential scheme for mine ventilation.
Preparation of ventilation scheme during a fire.
Fire protection plan preparation.
Analysis of the risk of fire in the mine.
Fighting a fire in the mine.
– The student knows how fires occur and how to extinguish a fire in an underground mine.
– The student knows how to apply the stoppings or seals fire and knows how to use inert gases.
– Student is able to detect and fight fires.
– The student is able to protect personnel during a fire.
– The student has the ability to manage the action extinguish the fire and rescue personnel.
Selected problems of mine planning and economics
- Objectives: As part of the subject will be presented content related to business management mining. The economics of entities will be identified, related to their specificity resulting from owned geological and technical resources.
The segments of their activities will be characterized in the frame of shaping revenues and costs.
Mining economics (basic information about management of effectivity and liquidity in mining ) (2h)
Accountancy and financial statements in management of mining enterprises (2h)
Structures of mining companies in the world – view in the light of current strategic requirements (2h)
Operational management in mining companies – focus on operational earnings and working capital requirement (2h)
Management of investment decisions – investment valuation in mining (mining life cycle) (2h)
Financing in mining – estimation of financial decisions in the light of capital structure (2h)
Strategic development of mining companies in the light of value creation (value drivers related to intangible and tangible assets) (2h)
Identification of dependence among earnings and cash flows (2h)
Estimation of financial ratios in the light of liquidity and profitability (2h)
Management of working capital requirement – effectiveness of operational decisions in mining enterprises (2h)
Estimation of investment decisions – analysis of investment projects in mining (2h)
Financial structure of mining enterprises – calculation of weighted average cost of capital WACC (2h)
Financial planning of mining activity – creating of financial and managerial statements (2h)
Model of mining enterprise valuation with discounted cash flows – identification of strategic value drivers (2h).
– Has extended knowledge in the field of business management industrial which is a mining plant. Understands the economic basics determining the management process in mining plant. He can connect up technical aspects related to the chain values realized in the plant mining with its participation aspect.
– Is able to perform tasks and exercises that in the economic sense reproduce technical processes.
– Can express in economic language implemented technical processes connected in the mining plant. Can conduct economic analysis of implemented processes in the context of them profitability and financial impact company.
– Understands the need for permanent educate yourself depending on changing around. Can achieve goals and work as a team, taking on different roles in it.
Environmental risk assessment in exploration and mining
- Objectives: Presentation of methods to limit the adverse impact of mining on the environment. Examples of the impact of various types of mining activities on the environment.
2. The characteristics of minerals mining
3. The components of mining areas
4. The immunity of the environment constituents to the impact of mining activity
5. The influence of mining activity on the environment
6. Minimizing the adverse impact of mining on the environment
7. Classification of post-mining areas
1. Influence of mining on the atmosphere
2. Influence of mining on the surface and underground water
3. Influence of mining performance on the configuration of the surface
4. Influence of mining on monuments and cultural heritage
5. Influence of mining on the soil and management of mining waste materials
6. Noise generated by mining operations
7. Influence of mining on human health; influence of mining on the wildlife
– Student have knowledge on planning and to tools used in geology works.
– Student have knowledge on extracting, processing and use of ore.
– Student is able to present conclusions of his/her research.
– Student is able to perform preliminary economic analysis of geological works.
– Students can use English language in the environmental engineering.
– Students are aware of the continuous improvement of the knowledge.
GIS and remote sensing
- Objectives: The course aims at acquiring of satellite imagery of various origin an basic processing and analysis of images as well as interpretation for geological and environmental applications.
Spatial analysis (GIS)
Introduction to spatial data in natural sciences; GIS: basic terms, origin, history, recent developments; types of the data: spatial data (maps): vector and raster; attribute data and role of the Data Base; acquisition of the spatial data – digitising (on tablet, on screen, “automatic”), other sources of the data; continuous and discrete data; collection and processing of continuous data; methods of interpolation/gridding; Digital Elevation Model (DEM); coordinate systems: datum, projection, reference systems, reference grids, location; GPS (Global Positioning System) and other satellite-based positioning systems (Glonass, Galileo): principles and practical use, format of the data and use in GIS; principles of spatial analysis; DB Querry (reclass; assign, extract, histo, area, perimeter); distance operators (Euclidean, cost, spherical, anisotropic, pathway, buffer etc.); context operators (filters, pattern, texture, group etc.); statistics (regression, multiple linear regression, autocorrelation, etc.); Decision Support (MCE, MOLA, Bayesian probability, etc.); principles of remote sensing and image processing; acquisition of data; basic methods of processing and analysis; application in environmental sciences (5 h).
Introduction to Remote Sensing: principles and “philosophy”; sources of data: active and past satellite and airborne platforms and scanners, formats of the data; processing and analytical procedures: contrast adjustment, filtering, colour composites, map algebra, band ratios, classification (unsupervised and supervised).
Student who completes the course:
– knows and understands principles of GIS: spatial and attribute data and scope of their processing and analysis;
– knows GIS software and its suppliers;
– knows formats of the data;
– knows cartographic projections and coordinate reference systems;
– knows and understands principles of satellite navigation systems;
– Student have a knowledge of using advanced computer software used in earth sciences.
– Student who completes the course is able to: – recognize, define and convert basic formats of the spatial data; – find and use resources in the public domain (WMS, WFS etc.); – find and purchase commercial resources of the spatial data; – create his own data by digitizing and DB building; – recognize, define and convert coordinate reference systems.
– Having completed the course student is able to: – select and apply tools of editing, processing and analysis appropriate to the needs and goals of the project; – acquire GPS data and apply them to the GIS projects; – present results of spatial processing
and analysis as maps, report, presentation etc.
As the GIS is relatively new IT in the geoscience field, the student attending the course understands the need for continuous further education and upgrading his Earth science and IT knowledge and skills. GIS projects are commonly carried out in teams, therefore, he/she develops his/her abilities for a team-work and for proper planning of multi-stage works.
- Objectives: Student using different software is able to visualize different kind of geological data.
- Content: Introduction and presentation of Surfer, Voxler, MineScape, Excel. Surfer, MineScape: map and sections drawing and exercises on real geology data.
– Student have advanced knowledge necessary for applied geology calculations.
– Student have knowledge on software tools used in geology.
– Student is able to use advanced software for solving geological problems.
– Student is able to evaluate usefulness of new geological software.